TIME royals

Can You Tell the Difference Between a Royal and a Dummy?

See your favorite members of the royal family and their wax dummy duplicates, which were unveiled at Madame Tussauds in New York City on Oct. 23

TIME photography

See Breathtaking Aerial Views of Fall Foliage

Autumn is here, and photographers everywhere are capturing the changing colors of the season. Poland-based photographer Kacper Kowalski captured the most unique views of all, opting to shoot his country’s fall foliage by paraglider (and sometimes gyroplane), creating these magnificent images of the landscape.

“I fly alone as the pilot and photographer,” Kowalski told TIME. “I use a regular reportage camera in my hand. [In this] way I can have control over the image, I can decide by myself where, how and when I will fly to take the image.”

The pictures are part of a larger body of work by Kowalski where he has captured both rural and urban parts of Poland over several years. “I work and live in Gdynia in the northern part of Poland . . . very close to Gdansk at the Baltic sea. The landscape is very rich. And the nature. It is absolutley amazing. Because of the climate in this geographical location it is different each week.”

You can see more of Kowalski’s work and read more about his process here.

TIME space

See the Stunning New Portrait of Mars from India’s MOM Spacecraft

Mars photographed by the ISRO Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft on Sept. 30, 2014.
Mars photographed by the ISRO Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft on Sept. 30, 2014. ISRO—AFP/Getty Images

India’s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), which began orbiting the Red Planet on Sept. 23, has already sent back a stunning new portrait of Mars. The image taken Sept. 28 shows the beginnings of a dust storm on the surface of the planet and was taken by the Mars Color Camera aboard the spacecraft. The Mars Orbiter will be collecting images and other data from the planet’s surface and atmosphere using five sensors, four of which have already been switched on.

This data will be shared with NASA, according to an agreement signed on Sept. 30 between the two agencies to collaborate on Mars exploration. NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft entered Mars’s orbit just two days ahead of MOM, and will be able to receive data from Opportunity and Curiosity rovers on the planet’s surface.

TIME

Journey to the Red Planet: MAVEN Approaches Martian Orbit

Ahead of its arrival, take a look back at the spacecraft's evolution

On Sept. 21, NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft will arrive in orbit around Mars and embark on a one-Earth-year long mission to collect data from the planet’s upper atmosphere. MAVEN launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Nov. 18, 2013 and, over the last 10 months, covered a journey of 442 million miles to get where it’s going. The spacecraft is the very first to be dedicated to the study and measurement of Mars’ upper atmosphere.

“The MAVEN science mission focuses on answering questions about where the water that was present on early Mars [went], about where did the carbon dioxide go,” said Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN principal investigator from the University of Colorado, Boulder’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in a statement. “These are important questions for understanding the history of Mars, its climate, and its potential to support at least microbial life.”

MAVEN, which is equipped with a telecommunications package that allows it to relay data from the Curiosity and Opportunity Rovers currently exploring the planet’s surface, is one of several efforts NASA has undertaken to prepare for potential human exploration of Mars.

TIME Egypt

Here’s How to Explore the Pyramids From Your Own Home

New images added to Google Street View include 360-degree views of Egypt

On Tuesday morning, Google unveiled Street View Egypt in Google Maps, the latest step in the tech giant’s quest to image and map the seven wonders of the world. This new collection includes 360-degree views of the Great Pyramids of Giza, the necropolis of Saqqara, the Citadel of Qaitbay, the Cairo Citadel, the Hanging Church and the ancient city of Abu Mena.

A Street View operations team member wearing a Trekker in Saqqara, Egypt. Google

Google Street View began in 2007 and has since covered more than 7.2 million unique miles across more than 59 countries, gathering tens of millions of images that cover iconic landmarks and monuments, including the Taj Mahal, Angkor Wat, the Galapagos Islands, Everest Base Camp, the Grand Canyon and the Colosseum. Images are collected using 75-megapixel 360-degree panoramic cameras mounted on Street View Cars, or in the case of Street View Egypt and other hard-to-reach locations, “Trekkers” — backpack-like mounts worn by team members as they walk, hike and climb through a given location.

“We have two kinds of collections,” Google Maps Street View program manager Amita Khattri tells TIME. “We do countries that we have already collected imagery for — we sometimes go ahead and refresh the imagery — and then there are newer countries where we outreach and start on the new image collection.”

The Street View team faced exceptional challenges over the 10 days they spent using the Trekker in Egypt, carrying the heavy rigs through the desert during the height of summer where the heat tested the limits of both the cameras and the team members carrying them.

“It was a unique experience for us as well, because the equipment really got tested in the heat,” Khattri says. The captured scenes collected by the Trekkers were then stitched together into panoramas so that the result is seamless. This process, which also includes blurring of faces and license plates, can take anywhere from a month to several months, depending on the area being captured and the conditions under which the images were made.

TIME Iceland

See Iceland’s Volcano Raging Under the Northern Lights In 1 Amazing Image

The Bardarbunga volcano erupts under the aurora borealis in the Holuhraun lava field in the east highlands of Iceland near Snæfell on Sept. 2, 2014.
The Bardarbunga volcano erupts under the aurora borealis in the Holuhraun lava field in the east highlands of Iceland near Snæfell on Sept. 2, 2014. Gísli Dúa Hjörleifsson

Since the Aug. 31 eruption of Iceland’s Bardarbunga volcano, the world has watched in awe as it spews glowing red lava into the desolate landscape. Bardarbunga has stemmed a series of earthquakes through the country, but the eruption has also become the subject of some incredible photographs, videos, and satellite images.

Icelandic photographer Gísli Dúa Hjörleifsson, who is also a ranger in the area, may have captured the most epic images of all: the hot glow of the volcanic eruption underneath cool and ethereal haze of the northern lights, or the aurora borealis.

The Bardarbunga volcano erupts under the aurora borealis in the Holuhraun lava field in the east highlands of Iceland near Snæfell on Sept. 2, 2014. Gísli Dúa Hjörleifsson

“In my many years of working in the highland of Iceland both as a photographer and ranger, I . . . have a knowledge of the nature and especially the way the light has an huge influence in the landscape,” Hjörleifsson told TIME. “Knowing the current situation of the volcano I wanted to capture this unique situation. I drove up in the area surrounding the volcano and watched the the sky until I could see the northern lights taking shape. That interaction with the heat and color from the volcano created a completely new color palette I have never seen [before].”

TIME Travel

See Images of Airplanes at Night Like You’ve Never Seen Them Before

This is what your Labor Day vacation flight looks like shot as a long exposure

While Labor Day is first and foremost a tribute to the nation’s workers, it is also billed as one of the worst travel days of the year. For many, it’s the final opportunity to take a three day weekend before the chill of fall, and eventually winter, sets in. Nearly 35 million people will be traveling this weekend, with nearly eighty percent traveling by air.

This summer, photographer Kevin Kunstadt began making long exposures of airplanes as they flew over the New York City area at night, creating these surreal and eerily beautiful images that chart the flight paths travelers will take this weekend. “A bit of guesswork and luck was involved due to the variability of the flight paths and the time it takes to set up each shot — you can only kind of estimate where the planes might go based on prior flight paths that you might see while framing the shot, ” Kunstadt told TIME. “The website Flightaware.com was tremendously helpful as far as gauging the timing of potential planes, and figuring out when to start an exposure. The exposures themselves were between 3 and 30 minutes.” His images capture light trails usually invisible to the human eye, and a view you are unlikely to see during this weekend’s travel.

TIME space

45 Years Later: 5 GIFs of NASA’s First Moon Landing

On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first two people to land on the lunar surface, while their third crew member, Michael Collins, continued to orbit around the moon. Armstrong and Aldrin arrived in the Lunar Module (LM) Eagle, one of three parts of the Apollo 11 spacecraft which also included a Command Module (CM) Columbia and a Command Service Module (CSM) to support Columbia. Approximately six and half hours after a rocky landing, Armstrong and Aldrin exited the LM and set foot on the moon to begin their Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA), with Armstrong uttering his now famous words, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

In addition to performing several experiments and collecting samples from the lunar surface, the two meticulously photographed every stage of the EVA with specially designed Hasselblad cameras (one of which was actually left on the moon to help lighten the load on the LM as they returned to Columbia).

All of the images taken by Aldrin and Armstrong were scanned and archived, and are available to the public through NASA’s Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. Below, in honor of the 45th anniversary of the moon landing, TIME has assembled 5 GIFs from Aldrin, Armstrong, and Collins’ images showing in detail some of the historic moments captured by the Apollo 11 crew.

  • Buzz Aldrin Descends The Lunar Module Ladder

    Buzz Aldrin descends the Lunar Module ladder
    Neil Armstrong—NASA (5); Gif by Mia Tramz for TIME

    Neil Armstrong took two photos of Buzz Aldrin coming out of the hatch of the Lunar Module, and the four more photos as he climbed down the LM’s ladder and hit the foot pad. Aldrin’s ops antenna is visible in the last frame.

  • Buzz Aldrin Makes a Lunar Foot Print

    Buzz Aldrin's foot print on the moon
    Buzz Aldrin—NASA (3); Gif by Mia Tramz for TIME

    In this series of three images, Buzz Aldrin photographs the lunar surface before and after making a foot print on it. He had taken his camera off it its RCU bracket and shot these pictures holding the camera in his gloved hands. This 16mm movie camera mounted in his LM window captured Aldrin on film taking these pictures.

  • Buzz Aldrin Sets Up the EASEP

    Buzz Aldrin sets up the EASEP
    Neil Armstrong—NASA (7); Gif by Mia Tramz for TIME

    In this series of images, Armstrong captures Aldrin setting up the EASEP (Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package). Aldrin has the LRRR (Laser Ranging Retro Reflector) in his right hand, and the seismometer package in his left hand. As of December 2010, the retroreflectors were still being used in conjunction with a dedicated facility at the MacDondald Observatory in Texas.

  • Earthrise Captured from the Command Module

    Earthrise captured from the Command Module
    NASA (8); Gif by Mia Tramz for TIME

    A view of the Earthrise taken from the Command Module Columbia as it was passing over Mare Smythii. Australia is visible at the left on Earth’s surface, just above the lunar horizon.

  • Apollo 11 Lunar Module Rendevous with Command Module

    Apollo 11 Lunar Module Rendevous with Command Module
    Michael Collins—NASA (13); Gif by Mia Tramz for TIME

    This series of images captures the Lunar Module approaching the Command Service Module at rendezvous and was shot handheld by astronaut Michael Collins. Earthrise is visible in the last four frames.

TIME

Robert Capa’s Iconic D-Day Photo of a Soldier in the Surf

Watch the video that shows how the famed photojournalist's negatives were almost lost

Robert Capa in Portsmouth, England on June 6, 1944. David Scherman—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images

The story behind Robert Capa’s iconic shot of a soldier in the surf at Normandy, one of the most celebrated pictures of the Second World War, is nearly as complex as it is incredible. In 1944, Capa, later a co-founder of the photography collective Magnum, was assigned to cover the Allied invasion of Normandy by LIFE picture editor John G. Morris. Capa, then 30 years old, was one of only 18 American photographers given credentials from the U.S. Armed Forces to cover the preparation for the invasion, and one of only four credentialed to land on the beaches of Normandy alongside American troops.

Dropped nearly 100 yards from the beach during the first wave of the invasion, Capa waded through waist-deep water dodging heavy fire and carrying three cameras. He managed through careful maneuvering to make it to land, where he alternated between taking cover and making pictures as troops made the same deadly journey to shore. In the 90 minutes that he spent on the beach, Capa witnessed men shot, blown up and set on fire all around him.

Huston Riley, circa 1944. Courtesy of Charlotte Riley

At nearly the same time, a young GI, now known to be Huston Riley, disembarked from his landing craft into water over his head — and sank straight to the bottom, weighed down by his gear. Riley activated his flotation device and quickly became a sitting duck for German machine gun fire as he bobbed on the surface. Over the course of 30 minutes, Riley made his way to shore while bullets ricocheted off his shoes and pack. Just as he hit land and began to run, Riley caught four bullets in his right shoulder, two of which stayed lodged in his body. Two men quickly came and helped him reach cover, one of whom, Riley later recalled, had a camera around his neck. The photographer was Capa, and somewhere between the moment when Riley reached the surf and when he was being lifted, wounded, out of the water, Capa made the photo that for generations has defined the chaos and the courage witnessed on D-Day.

The journey of Capa’s film that followed, explained in detail in the video above by Capa’s editor and longtime friend, John G. Morris, was almost equally as perilous. Capa’s film survived only because he carried it off the beach himself. His colleague Bob Landry’s film, along with the film of nine other photographers and cinematographers, was lost, having been handed off to a colonel who dropped the whole pack in the ocean while boarding a transport ship. And although Capa shot approximately 106 frames on the beach, only a handful have survived. Though the exact number of surviving frames is uncertain, the actual negative of the picture known as The Face in the Surf, along with another from the set, was lost sometime after the photo’s publication in the June 19, 1944 issue of LIFE. It is, in a sense, a testament to the incalculable hardship and violence of the Longest Day that the only surviving photographic record of the Omaha Beach landing from the beach itself are nine hard-won, fragile, immensely powerful negatives.

Editor’s note: This video has been updated to include a photo illustration credit.

TIME weather

Two Bolts of Lightning Strike One World Trade Center

Two bolts of lightning hit the antenna on top of One World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan as an ele
Gary Hershorn—Insider Images/Corbis

As a thunderstorm passed over New York City Friday night, photojournalist Gary Hershorn captured two bolts of lightning hitting the spire on top of One World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan.

A seasoned photographer and photo editor, Hershorn described how he captured the photo: “I saw the storm clouds forming while I was shooting some pictures of lower Manhattan from Jersey City right across from One World Trade Center. I was shooting with a point and shoot camera so I raced home and grabbed my real camera and tripod and went to a gazebo next to the Hudson River and shot endless 10 second exposures hoping to catch the bolts of lightning. I shot about 150 pictures and 6 frames had lightning bolts. I missed about 5 others in between frames. I was able to shoot from a covered spot in the pouring rain. It feels like I spend half my life shooting the New York skyline but have been waiting for years to have the perfect electrical storm around sunset…[T]he light in the sky was nicely balanced with the lightning and the brightness of the buildings on the skyline.”

MORE: One World Trade Center: How New York rebuilt the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere

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