Children rest at a refugee camp in Bayeun, outside of Langsa, Indonesia, May 20. They were among the 25,000-plus Rohingya Muslim migrants who have fled reported persecution in Burma and Bangladesh this year by crossing the Indian Ocean in search of refugee status in Indonesia and Malaysia.James Nachtwey for TIME
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. Landed in port pif Langsa in Aceh, Indonesia, where they were given shelter, food and medical care by Indonesian and international NGO's. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping g from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshi's are fleeing poverty. by James Nachtwey
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. Landed in port pif Langsa in Aceh, Indonesia, where they were given shelter, food and medical care by Indonesian and international NGO's. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping g from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshi's are fleeing poverty. by James Nachtwey
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. Landed in port pif Langsa in Aceh, Indonesia, where they were given shelter, food and medical care by Indonesian and international NGO's. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping g from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshi's are fleeing poverty. by James Nachtwey
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. Landed in port pif Langsa in Aceh, Indonesia, where they were given shelter, food and medical care by Indonesian and international NGO's. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping g from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshi's are fleeing poverty. by James Nachtwey
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. Landed in port pif Langsa in Aceh, Indonesia, where they were given shelter, food and medical care by Indonesian and international NGO's. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping g from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshi's are fleeing poverty. by James Nachtwey
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. Landed in port pif Langsa in Aceh, Indonesia, where they were given shelter, food and medical care by Indonesian and international NGO's. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping g from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshi's are fleeing poverty. by James Nachtwey
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. Landed in port pif Langsa in Aceh, Indonesia, where they were given shelter, food and medical care by Indonesian and international NGO's. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping g from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshi's are fleeing poverty. by James Nachtwey
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshis are fleeing poverty. An abandoned camp allegedly for trafficked Rohingya and Bangladeshis in mountainous jungle on the Malaysian side of the Thai-Malaysian border. Human remains being disinterred from an informal cemetery near the camp.by James Nachtwey
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshis are fleeing poverty. An abandoned camp allegedly for trafficked Rohingya and Bangladeshis in mountainous jungle on the Malaysian side of the Thai-Malaysian border. Human remains being disinterred from an informal cemetery near the camp.by James Nachtwey
Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees aboard boats that have been at sea for months off the coast of SE Asia. The Rohingya have fled political oppression and violence and are escaping from the bad conditions of concentration camps. The Bangladeshis are fleeing poverty. Aboard a Malaysian Navy ship out of Langkawi on routine patrol looking for boats with Rohingyas, in waters neighboring Thailand. None were sighted in Malaysiian waters.by James Nachtwey
Children rest at a refugee camp in Bayeun, outside of Langsa, Indonesia, May 20. They were among the 25,000-plus Rohingy
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James Nachtwey for TIME
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The Plight of the Rohingya by James Nachtwey

Jun 04, 2015
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For decades, TIME contract photographer James Nachtwey has used his camera to give form to the invisible. Yet in a world filled with persecuted people hidden in isolated corners of the globe, the Rohingya stand out. A Muslim minority from western Burma, the 1.3 million-strong Rohingya have been denied the most basic of human rights: citizenship. Their sense of self has been lost.

Since sectarian tensions erupted in 2012, roughly 140,000 Rohingya have been herded into camps by the Burmese government, which has allowed a virulent Buddhist nationalist movement to germinate. Last year, Nachtwey spent time in these Rohingya ghettos, where conditions were among the worst he had witnessed — and this from a photographer who has worked in refugee camps in Africa and the Middle East.

With limitations on their lives increasing with each month — in May, Burmese President Thein Sein signed a population-control law that could be used to restrict the number of children Rohingya bear — Rohingya have been boarding rickety boats in hopes of eventually landing in Malaysia, a Muslim-majority nation where they take menial jobs. Over the last year or so, around 90,000 Rohingya and Bangladeshi migrants, who also hope for better economic prospects, have embarked on perilous journeys that take them across the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea to the jungles of Thailand and Malaysia. Often, the price agreed upon for the feat of human-smuggling rises once the migrants stumble into the jungle encampments. Unless family members pay up, the Rohingya and Bangladeshis face possible starvation, disease and even execution by the traffickers.

With Thailand and Malaysia finally cracking down on the trade, the human-smuggling trawlers — slave ships, really — have turned into floating prisons, as the normal trade routes are disrupted and captains abandon their boats. Thousands may still be stuck at sea. Meanwhile, on land, authorities have found more than 150 graves of suspected migrants, near abandoned jungle camps. Police and government officials have been detained for their part in the trafficking trade.

The Rohingya, Burma's Forgotten Muslims by James Nachtwey

Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
More than 140,000 minority Rohingya Muslims have been forced to live in camps, where disease and despair have taken root. Abdul Kadir, 65, who has a severe stomach ailment and malnutrition, is cared for by his wife in one of the camps.James Nachtwey for TIME
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care. Brick kilns operated by Rohingya IDP's. Workers are IDP's. Adults are paid 2,000 kyat per day for about 10m hours of work. Children are paid 1,000 kyat per day. Children in photos are from age 6 to 8 and the oldest is 14. Thek Kay Pyin, 7, an IDP. His father is So Zokorice (small man in white tank top). He was falsely accused of murder and spent 1and 1/2 years in Sittwe Jail, beaten continuously for 8 months before being released without charges against him.Funeral of Ziada Begum, 30, who died of stomach diseasee. Left behind 5 children with no husband.Sham Shi Dar Begum, 18. TB and AIDS. Father died from AIDS. MOther Noor Johan, 50. Has seven daughters, all living in two small rooms in camp.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care. Brick kilns operated by Rohingya IDP's. Workers are IDP's. Adults are paid 2,000 kyat per day for about 10m hours of work. Children are paid 1,000 kyat per day. Children in photos are from age 6 to 8 and the oldest is 14. Thek Kay Pyin, 7, an IDP. His father is So Zokorice (small man in white tank top). He was falsely accused of murder and spent 1and 1/2 years in Sittwe Jail, beaten continuously for 8 months before being released without charges against him.Funeral of Ziada Begum, 30, who died of stomach diseasee. Left behind 5 children with no husband.Sham Shi Dar Begum, 18. TB and AIDS. Father died from AIDS. MOther Noor Johan, 50. Has seven daughters, all living in two small rooms in camp.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care. Brick kilns operated by Rohingya IDP's. Workers are IDP's. Adults are paid 2,000 kyat per day for about 10m hours of work. Children are paid 1,000 kyat per day. Children in photos are from age 6 to 8 and the oldest is 14.Funerals. First a 16 year old girl who drank poison. Sevcond a woman who died from stomach disease.A blind beggar on railway tracks between two IDP camps.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care. Brick kilns operated by Rohingya IDP's. Workers are IDP's. Adults are paid 2,000 kyat per day for about 10m hours of work. Children are paid 1,000 kyat per day. Children in photos are from age 6 to 8 and the oldest is 14. Thek Kay Pyin, 7, an IDP. His father is So Zokorice (small man in white tank top). He was falsely accused of murder and spent 1and 1/2 years in Sittwe Jail, beaten continuously for 8 months before being released without charges against him.Funeral of Ziada Begum, 30, who died of stomach diseasee. Left behind 5 children with no husband.Sham Shi Dar Begum, 18. TB and AIDS. Father died from AIDS. MOther Noor Johan, 50. Has seven daughters, all living in two small rooms in camp.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care. Brick kilns operated by Rohingya IDP's. Workers are IDP's. Adults are paid 2,000 kyat per day for about 10m hours of work. Children are paid 1,000 kyat per day. Children in photos are from age 6 to 8 and the oldest is 14. Thek Kay Pyin, 7, an IDP. His father is So Zokorice (small man in white tank top). He was falsely accused of murder and spent 1and 1/2 years in Sittwe Jail, beaten continuously for 8 months before being released without charges against him.Funeral of Ziada Begum, 30, who died of stomach diseasee. Left behind 5 children with no husband.Sham Shi Dar Begum, 18. TB and AIDS. Father died from AIDS. MOther Noor Johan, 50. Has seven daughters, all living in two small rooms in camp.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care. Brick kilns operated by Rohingya IDP's. Workers are IDP's. Adults are paid 2,000 kyat per day for about 10m hours of work. Children are paid 1,000 kyat per day. Children in photos are from age 6 to 8 and the oldest is 14.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care. Brick kilns operated by Rohingya IDP's. Workers are IDP's. Adults are paid 2,000 kyat per day for about 10m hours of work. Children are paid 1,000 kyat per day. Children in photos are from age 6 to 8 and the oldest is 14.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care. Brick kilns operated by Rohingya IDP's. Workers are IDP's. Adults are paid 2,000 kyat per day for about 10m hours of work. Children are paid 1,000 kyat per day. Children in photos are from age 6 to 8 and the oldest is 14.Funerals. First a 16 year old girl who drank poison. Sevcond a woman who died from stomach disease.A blind beggar on railway tracks between two IDP camps.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Baw Du Ba 2 Camp. Mustawba Khatu, 50 - hepatitis, enlarged liverMa Noor Ul Nisa, 3 1/2 - pneumonia, feverNoor Lang Sering, 25 - TB (girl in foreground, daughter)Sham Shi Dar Begum, 18 - TB, HIV+ (husband died from AIDS) Mother on right, Noor Jahan, 50.MSF had dealt effectively with TYb and HIV. Since the NGO was ejected, people are at risk from lack of medication and a systematic approach to administration of the drugs.In Thek Kay Pyin Pharmacy waiting for treatment from the owner of the pharmacy, who is not a doctor or a pharmacist. Ru Kuma, 10 - worms in stomach. Mother, Bi Bi, 30.Mustawba Khatu - orange blouse, daughter in foregroundNoor Ul Nisa - held by mother, father to leftMa Noor Lang Sering - mother in white scarf, red bag on wall.Baw Du Ba 2 Camp mosque - Friday prayers.Aid goods distributed by UNHCR being sold in market after UNHCR distribution.Fishing boats at low tide.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Fishing boatsDapaing IDP Camp:Thein Maung, 46 - HIV+ and AIDS - son, Athassan Ullah, 4MSF had dealt effectively with TB and HIV. Since the NGO was ejected, people are at risk from lack of medication and a systematic approach to administration of the drugs.Ohn Daw Gee, 5Shaw Bi Ullah, 45 - diarrhea, motorbikeKobir Ahmed, 70 - malnutrition due to stomach troubles - twin grandsons Jamal Hussein, Anwar Hussein, 3 - wormsDapaing Hospital:Su Ra Khatu, 70 - fever, stomach ailmentHar Zar Ra Khatu, 70 - suspected TBAbdul Hussein, 65 - suspected TB, paralysis in one legAbdul Salam, 45 - diabetes - wife Shanisida Begum, 22 - baby Noor Harbiba, 3 monthsLatrines at Baw Du Pha 2 Camp.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care. Brick kilns operated by Rohingya IDP's. Workers are IDP's. Adults are paid 2,000 kyat per day for about 10m hours of work. Children are paid 1,000 kyat per day. Children in photos are from age 6 to 8 and the oldest is 14.Funerals. First a 16 year old girl who drank poison. Sevcond a woman who died from stomach disease.A blind beggar on railway tracks between two IDP camps.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
Rohingye people, a Muslim population, living in Rakhine State on the northwest coast of Burma have been restricted to their villages and placed in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDP) camps by the Burmese government. They have been the victims of persecution and communal violence by numbers of the Buddhist majority in Rakhine. International NGO's such as MSF have been expelled by the government, leading to a soaring crisis in health care.Fishing boatsDapaing IDP Camp:Thein Maung, 46 - HIV+ and AIDS - son, Athassan Ullah, 4MSF had dealt effectively with TB and HIV. Since the NGO was ejected, people are at risk from lack of medication and a systematic approach to administration of the drugs.Ohn Daw Gee, 5Shaw Bi Ullah, 45 - diarrhea, motorbikeKobir Ahmed, 70 - malnutrition due to stomach troubles - twin grandsons Jamal Hussein, Anwar Hussein, 3 - wormsDapaing Hospital:Su Ra Khatu, 70 - fever, stomach ailmentHar Zar Ra Khatu, 70 - suspected TBAbdul Hussein, 65 - suspected TB, paralysis in one legAbdul Salam, 45 - diabetes - wife Shanisida Begum, 22 - baby Noor Harbiba, 3 monthsLatrines at Baw Du Pha 2 Camp.Photograph by James Nachtwey.
More than 140,000 minority Rohingya Muslims have been forced to live in camps, where disease and despair have taken root
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James Nachtwey for TIME
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In May, Nachtwey traveled to three countries — Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia — to document the plight of Asia’s newest boat people. In Malaysia, he trekked through jungle to observe bodies being pulled out of the earth, near encampments with bamboo cages used to confine migrants. At a temporary refugee camp in Indonesia’s Aceh province, he captured an equally affecting scene: Rohingya who had spent more than three months at sea, starving and forced to drink their own urine, patiently lined up just a day after they had come ashore. One by one, they stood in front of an Indonesian photographer, who documented their names, ages and addresses — Burma was listed as their country of origin — on a whiteboard. Long unable to claim any real identity, the Rohingya were finally being given a chance at self-expression. As always, Nachtwey was there to bear witness.

Hannah Beech is TIME’s East Asia Bureau Chief and traveled with Nachtwey to report on the plight of the Rohingya.

James Nachtwey is a TIME contract photographer, documenting wars, conflicts and critical social issues.

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