The United States' trade embargo against Cuba began on Oct. 19, 1960. That's almost exactly nine years to the day before the first link was established on what would eventually evolve into the Internet. Since then, the global web has exploded in complexity and content — but Cuba has largely been left behind, with access that's slow, censored and available only to few.
A new change in U.S. policy announced this week, however, stands to change all that.
About a quarter of Cubans have Internet access, according to the International Telecommunications Union, a United Nations agency that oversees global communications. One in four may seem decent, especially compared to other isolated nations like North Korea, where its netizens are its most elite. But it turns out that 25% figure doesn't tell the whole picture.
Most connected Cubans only have access to a Balkanized, government-approved version of the Internet, more akin to a heavily restricted web portal than the open browser you and I use. Freedom House describes the typical Cuban connectivity experience as "a tightly controlled government-filtered intranet, which consists of a national email system, a Cuban encyclopedia, a pool of educational materials and open-access journals, Cuban websites, and foreign websites that are supportive of the Cuban government."
Maps of undersea communications cables tell the story of Cuba's Internet another way. Only one major submarine cable connects Cuba's telecommunications networks to the outside world: ALBA-1, owned by a state-run Venezuelan telecom and connecting southeastern Cuba to Venezuela and Jamaica. That cable could be in pretty bad shape, says Fulton Armstrong, a research fellow at American University's Center for Latin American and Latino Studies, but Armstrong added that he couldn't verify that first hand.
Tellingly, cables that connect the southeastern U.S. to Central, South and Latin America completely bypass the island nation:
From an engineering perspective, it makes perfect sense to have routed those cables through Cuba. But geopolitics got in the way: the U.S. trade embargo with Cuba meant American companies couldn't lay pipe into the island, leaving it off the grid as neighbors got online. Cuba has for decades been a member of Soviet/Russian satellite service Intersputnik, but the country didn't get Internet access until the American telecom provider Sprint set up shop in 1996. Sprint provided a dedicated line connecting the Cuban state Internet provider to Sprint's U.S. network at 64kbps — just a bit faster than dial-up when running full throttle.
Sprint was able to set up that line thanks to 1992's Cuban Democracy Act, which authorized American companies "to provide efficient and adequate telecommunications services" between the U.S. and Cuba." The idea was to ensure that Cubans wouldn't be entirely cut off from notions of free speech and democracy. But Cuba's web censorship, combined with its slow speed and high cost, means the Internet hasn't had a massive impact on its society.
"Only foreign nationals and Castro can afford [Cuba's Internet]," says Larry Press, a researcher and blogger who covers technology in Cuba. In lieu of the Internet, he says, Cubans buy and sell USB drives loaded with media like American movies and TV shows on the secondary market. New drives with fresh content pop up weekly, Press says. He isn't sure where the drives come from, but one theory he relayed is that the Cuban government could be allowing them as a means to profit from them. Some Cubans also use illicit Wi-Fi networks to share information locally, but those networks aren't connected to the wider Internet.
Nevertheless, Cuba's Internet could be about to get a whole lot better. President Barack Obama unexpectedly announced a new chapter in U.S.-Cuban relations Wednesday, and part of that deal involves new efforts to literally bring Cuba up to speed. Under the policy change, American companies will be able to not only sell some hardware and software to Cuban customers, but they could be encouraged to make investments in infrastructure, too, whether that means building undersea cables or rolling out mobile broadband across the country. Cuba's Internet, Press says, is a "greenfield," meaning whatever networks are built won't be encumbered by pre-existing infrastructure, because so little of it exists. That means Cuba could bypass older, slower technologies and leapfrog right to ultra-fast fiber, for example, provided the will and the funds are there.
"I hope they consider a wide range of infrastructure ownership and control models, looking toward Europe, China, Singapore, South Korea, Google (free DSL or paid fiber), et cetera," says Press. American University's Armstrong, meanwhile, says bringing faster Internet to Cuba will "take some time," with the speed depending on "how fast [the telecoms] and the Cubans negotiate deals and get them off the ground."
The White House said its new policy will help Cubans communicate more freely, which could accelerate societal change in the Communist country. But it remains to be seen just how much Cuban officials will be willing to open up. China, in particular, has proven that it's possible to have a flourishing technology sector while still keeping a tight lid on what citizens search for, say and do online. Still, if Congress approves normalizing trade ties with Cuba, that could give Washington economic leverage to make sure Cuba keeps its Internet open. And there's a chance, however small, that would mean changes offline, too.
"With greater opening and exposure of the Cubans to American culture, music, movies and way of life, I think there might be more demand for greater freedom, which might then encourage the government to loosen up its practices," says Sanja Kelly, project director at Freedom on the Net, Freedom House's Internet freedom project. However, she cautioned that Cuba's fate remains in its leaders' hands: "[Cuba's] future will ultimately depend on the government's willingness to change its repressive practices."