Between headlines about the UVA frats, the Canadian broadcaster Jian Ghomeshi and Bill Cosby, it seems like sexual assault allegations dominate the news. But in Britain there has been a recent spate of headline-grabbing cases where the people ultimately charged aren't the alleged rapists, but the women who filed the claims in the first place.
Take the case of Eleanor de Freitas, a 23-year-old Londoner with bipolar disorder. De Freitas reported an alleged assault to the police, who were unable to build a sufficient case against her alleged rapist. The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) then pursued de Freitas for perverting the course of justice -- a crime which carries a maximum sentence of life in prison. Shortly before her trial was to begin in April, de Freitas killed herself. The UK's Director of Public Prosecutions is currently investigating the case.
But de Freitas is not alone. Over the past five years, the CPS has prosecuted 109 women for making false rape allegations to authorities, according to the group Women Against Rape (WAR). The majority of those who were prosecuted -- a full 98 -- were charged with perverting the course of justice like de Freitas. But WAR, a London non-profit, held a public meeting at the House of Commons on Tuesday night, protesting what they believe is the unfair and aggressive prosecution of women.
For their part, the CPS noted in an email to TIME that such prosecutions are "serious but rare" and are "any decision to charge is extremely carefully considered and not taken lightly."
Yet WAR disagrees. “I have not found any country that aggressively pursues women for falsely reporting a rape the way the UK does," Lisa Avalos, an assistant professor of law at the University of Arkansas who has been working with WAR, tells TIME. Meanwhile, Lisa Longstaff, a spokeswoman for WAR, says, police are not putting in the necessary work into catching and convicting rapists. "They're not dealing with rapists properly."
Avalos agrees: "We do a bad job prosecuting rape across the Western world. A big part of what fuels that bad job is that police do not believe victims. Time after time after time we have victims saying they went to the police and the police didn’t believe them."
A lot of what WAR says resonates with the statistics. Earlier this month an official inquiry into police practices in England and Wales found that police had failed to record more than 25 percent of the rapes and sexual offenses reported to them by the public as actual crimes. In some regions the figures were even worse, with police not recording one out of every three reports of rape or sexual assault.
Similarly, an explosive report released earlier this year found that police in Rotherham, England, disregarded numerous reports, over a course of years, of rape, sexual assault and forced prostitution made by young girls who were being abused by a group of men. Longstaff also points out that many of the girls in the Rotherham case who came forward to the police wound up being charged with offenses such as underage drinking, while their rapists went free.
According to a report published by the Home Office in January, looking at a three-year average, as many as 517,000 sexual assaults take place in the UK per year and 95,000 rapes are committed. Yet there are only 5,620 sexual assault convictions a year and only 1,070 rape convictions. And while it's long been a problem that the vast majority of rapes and sexual assaults go unreported to the police -- which does factor in to the dismal percentage of convictions -- Avalos says that "those [false claim] prosecutions have a chilling effect on other women coming forward.”
No one is arguing that women who make malicious false allegations of rape should be free from consequences. But Avalos says these instances should be looked at on a "case-by-case" basis and that pursuing harsh criminal cases isn't the answer. (She notes that anyone who finds themselves falsely charged with rape can always pursue civil action against their accusers.) Part of the larger problem with prosecuting women for making false allegations is, according to Longstaff, that past examples prove "we can't trust the authorities to make a rational decision about which is a false and which is not a false allegation. We've gone down the road so many times of seeing women who report rape or domestic violence or even child abuse and then [unjustly] end up on the wrong end of the prosecution."
She points to the stateside case of Sara Reedy, who received a $1.5 million settlement from a Pennsylvania police department after she was raped at gunpoint at the age of 19 and then charged with inventing the story. Authorities were so convinced she was lying, she was even briefly jailed. It wasn't until her attacker was arrested for another assault and then confessed to raping Reedy, that charges were fully dropped.
When asked about their decision to prosecute women over suspected false rape allegations, the CPS's statement also noted that:
Such cases can only be brought where the prosecution can prove that the original rape allegation was false - if there is any question as to whether the original allegation might in fact have been true then a case of perverting the course of justice should not be brought. The relatively few cases that are brought are based on strong evidence and should not dissuade any potential victim from coming forward to report an assault.
But according to Longstaff, that's exactly what the prosecutions -- which might be rare, but can be highly publicized -- do. She says many of the women WAR works with feel that "once you report, the police can easily turn on you and pin some other, often minor, crime on you [rather] than deal with the serious rape that you've reported."
Correction: The original version of the story incorrectly described the response to de Freitas's allegations. The Crown Prosecution Service began a case against de Freitas for perverting the course of justice prior to her death in April.