A Hutu man who did not support the genocide had been imprisoned in the concentration camp, starved and attacked with machetes. He managed to survive after he was freed and was placed in the care of the Red Cross, Rwanda, 1994.
A Hutu man who did not support the genocide had been imprisoned in the concentration camp, starved and attacked with machetes. He managed to survive after he was freed and was placed in the care of the Red Cross, Rwanda, 1994.James Nachtwey for TIME
A Hutu man who did not support the genocide had been imprisoned in the concentration camp, starved and attacked with machetes. He managed to survive after he was freed and was placed in the care of the Red Cross, Rwanda, 1994.
The massacre at Nyarabuye took place in the grounds of a Catholic Church and school. Hundreds of Tutsis, including many children, were slaughtered at close range, Rwanda, 1994.
As the vanquished Hutus fled into Tanzania, they had to leave at the border the weapons with which they had committed the genocide, Rwanda, 1994.
At the Red Cross clinic in Nyanza, Tutsis who had been freed from the death camp were treated for their wounds, Rwanda, 1994.
Survivors of the death camp near Nyanza were in extremely poor condition when they were liberated by Tutsi rebel forces, Rwanda, 1994.
The massacre at Nyarabuye took place in the grounds of a Catholic church and school. Hundreds of Tutsis, including many children, were slaughtered at close range, Rwanda, 1994.
At the Red Cross clinic in Nyanza. Tutsis who had been freed from the death camp were treated for their wounds, Rwanda, 1994.
Survivors of the death camp new Nyanza were in extremely poor condition when they were liberated by Tutsi rebel forces, Rwanda, 1994.
The massacre at Nyarabuye took place in the grounds of a Catholic Church and school. Hundreds of Tutsis, including many children, were slaughtered at close range in Rwanda, 1994 (left). Thousands were buried anonymously in mass, communal graves in Zaire, 1994 (right).
Hutus who fled into Zaire set up vast encampments in the plains below the volcanoes outside the town of Goma in 1994.
To help stop the deadly momentum of the disease, the French army mobilized earth-moving equipment in Zaire to remove and bury the dead en masse, Zaire, 1994.
Sick children were carried by their fathers to a clinic in Zaire, 1994.
Refugees lined up to receive medical assistance in Zaire. Some died while they waited, Zaire, 1994.
Thousands were buried anonymously in mass, communal graves in Zaire, 1994.
Refugees who had just been hit with cholera were brought to one of the emergency medical stations in Zaire, 1994.
Intravenous rehydration was critical to reviving cholera victims, Zaire, 1994.
Children were especially susceptible to disease, Zaire, 1994.
Children were especially susceptible to the disease, Zaire, 1994.
An intensive care unit in Zaire was set up in the orphanage to help save children struck by cholera, Zaire, 1994.
Children were especially susceptible to the disease, Zaire, 1994.
After several days, the number of fatalities rapidly increased. The dead were stacked by the roadside in Zaire rather than buried, adding further momentum to the epidemic, 1994.
A Hutu man who did not support the genocide had been imprisoned in the concentration camp, starved and attacked with mac
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James Nachtwey for TIME
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When the World Turned Its Back: James Nachtwey's Reflections on the Rwandan Genocide

Apr 06, 2011

In 1994 TIME photographer James Nachtwey witnessed the devastating effects of the Rwandan genocide. On the 17-year anniversary, the photographer looks back on the tragedy.<!-- more -->

Humans make war, and we make peace. We make love, and we make hatred - hatred and fear. Those two are the killers. Orchestrate hatred and fear, and humans make genocide. European colonialists used fear and hatred to cut an incision deep into Rwanda to divide and conquer. It was never allowed to heal and became the subtext for society long after the white rulers made their exit. In 1994, tribal enmity between Hutus and Tutsis was politically manipulated to a state of critical mass. Between 500,000 and 1 million people were slaughtered in the span of three months using farm implements as weapons. The killing by the Hutu interahamwe was committed face-to-face, neighbor-against-neighbor, and sometimes even brother-against-brother.

The number most often heard is 800,000. It’s a big number no matter what it’s applied to. Trying to imagine 800,000 people with their heads bashed in by rocks and clubs, impaled on spears, hacked to death with hoes and machetes – in just three months – stuns the mind, and we struggle to wring meaning out of words like “biblical” or “apocalyptic.”

As they had in Bosnia, instead of sending more troops to prevent bloodshed, the United Nations Peacekeeping Force stepped aside. Because of the disastrous military operation in Somalia, our own political leaders made a conscious decision not to use the one word that could even begin to have meaning -“genocide” - understanding the obligation to intervene implicit in the language. As the world turned its back, the genocide happened in front of its eyes. Later, public apologies were made, something rare for politicians, but the gesture did not bring back the life of a single Rwandan.

Later, when the Hutu army and militias fled into Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) to escape the advancing Tutsi forces, more than 1 million people crossed the frontier in a single day. They set up makeshift shelters on rocky, volcanic earth, where it was impossible to find clean water, dig latrines or bury the dead. Within days a cholera epidemic swept through the camps. Tens of thousands died within a few weeks. Mass burials were carried out using bulldozers. Untold numbers of children were orphaned and abandoned. International relief agencies streamed into Goma to try to stem the tide of disease.

Those responsible for the genocide concealed themselves within the mass of civilians inside the camps. Relief organizations were in a dilemma. Because they could not distinguish who was a killer from who was a human shield, they were obliged to treat everyone. Ironically, the international community that had walked away from its responsibilities during the genocide was now forced to come to the rescue of those who had committed the atrocities.

All this happened in the same time frame in which Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa, as if by some infernal metaphysics the best humanity had to offer would be offset by the worst imaginable. It was our world then, and it’s our world now. We have examples from both ends of the spectrum of human aspirations. Will we take heed from the lessons taught by our own history? If we don’t, who will?

James Nachtwey is a TIME contract photographer, documenting wars, conflicts and critical social issues. On his most recent assignment, Nachtwey was one of the first photographers on the ground in northern Japan covering the devastating effects of the March 11 earthquake and tsunami. Nachtwey was also embedded with a United Stated Medevac unit in southern Afghanistan, published in January 2011.

*Please note: A correction was made to the author's text in the third paragraph on April 9, 2011.

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